The term “cyclopia” comes from Greek mythology where Cyclops was the one eye giant so with this respect cyclopia is a disease in which patient have a single eye. Cyclopia is a very rare form of holoprosencephaly (that is a cephalic disorder in which forebrain of embryo does not divide into two hemispheres) and fails to divide orbits of the eye into two.
It is a congenital disorder that means by birth defect. Normally these babies have a central eye and a nonfunctional nose (proboscis) normally present above the eye. Most of such babies are naturally aborted.
There are two major reasons of cyclopia and they are;
- Improper medication
- Genetic problem
- The intake of the cycloplamine that is a very highly teratogenic alkaloid.
- Mostly in pregnancy when women start vomiting they take hellebore plant but in some cases they mix it up with a plant Veratrum californicum that have deoxyjervine which causes cyclopia
- Another reason of Cyclopia is associated to alcoholism and diabetes. Those mothers who are diabetic or alcoholic, the toxins may accumulate in the body quickly. With the presence of these toxins brain develops single hemisphere rather than two during the creation of fetus. When this type of improper brain development happens, the orbital sockets are formed as single socket rather than two causes the happening of cyclopia.
- Those mothers who are addicted to alcohol or are diabetic they have 200 times greater chance of having cyclopic babies than normal mothers.
According to Armand Marie Leroy during that process in which embryonic brain is divided into two cyclopia occurs because of some genetic malfunctioning.
Some cases of cyclopia are allied with a rare chromosomal provision called “Patau Syndrome” which is associated with a person having three rather than usual two #13 chromosomes.
Picture 1: Cyclops showing proboscis, eyes and mouth
Image source : temple.edu
Picture 2: Cyclops
Image source : documentingreality.com
Picture 3: Cyclops
Image source : eyepathologist.com
As it is discussed before that this is a congenital disease so there are no symptoms of this disease, those women who become pregnant must go for their regular checkup and must keep an eye on their diet and medication.
As this is a very rare and congenital disease so it can only be diagnosed through ultra sound. Normally these babies are naturally aborted or still born.
As it is observed that because of deformation of mouth these babies, if they are born, face difficulties in breathing and feeding which results into their death. Mostly they are naturally aborted. Cyclopia can only be avoided by taking some extra care in pregnancy. Mother should avoid prohibited medicines during pregnancy. She must quit the intake of alcohol or any other toxic thing. She must go for her regular checkup so such type of births can be avoided.