Thrombolysis

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Thrombolytic Medication

What Is Thrombolysis?

Thrombolysis is a process or a form of treatment with a primary goal of the dissolving blood clots that cause obstruction. This is a common form of treatment that can assist clients who are suffering from blood clots. This can also facilitate improvement of one’s blood flow.

Thrombolysis Agents

Thrombolysis agents are also known as thrombolytic agents. These are only aimed in acting on the formed blood clots. It doesn’t mean that it can avoid development of blood clots. The following are known agents of thrombolysis:

  1. Streptokinase
  2. Urokinase
  3. Alteplase
  4. Anistreplase
  5. Prourokinase
  6. Retaplase
  7. Tenecteplase

These agents are composed of 3 classifications and these are tissue plasminogen activator, SK and UK. SK stands for streptokinase while UK stands for urokinase, the agents provided above.

Thrombolysis Mechanism

The basic action of thrombolysis is to dissolve the formed blood clots or clinically known as lysing the thrombi. As an agent is administered, it would start its role by activating plasminogen. Plasmin is capable in breaking down the integrity of the blood clot formation. Plasminogen would serve as an activator and assistance in the process of thrombosis.

Plasmin is capable of breaking down the molecules responsible in holding together the blood clot, known as the fibrin molecules. As the action of plasmin is taken part, breaking down the clot formations is easily attained.

Thrombolytic Medication

Thrombolytic Medication

Thrombolysis Guidelines

Thrombolysis guidelines would involve its use and indications. This is not provided abruptly as one is suspected to be problems with blood clot formation. There are indications to be considered before prescribing the drug. This is to make precautions as this drug is not to be abused.

Thrombolysis Indications

Thrombolysis is indicated in a number of conditions or medical processes. The following are indicated for thrombolysis:

  1. Atherosclerosis. This is plaque formation and possible rupture of this is being prevented by thrombolysis.
  2. Blood flow impediment is also indicated of thrombolysis.
  3. Certain medical conditions are indicated for thrombolysis. Such as those conditions that place people at risk for thrombi formation. Diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia are the known conditions.
  4. Smoking can cause for blood clot formations. These agents can help reduce such problem.
  5. During a burn accident, this may be indicated.

Thrombolysis Contraindications

Absolute contraindications of thrombolysis include the following processes or surgical interventions:

  • Major surgical intervention that has not healed or is of time of healing. Less than two weeks from the surgical intervention means that the patient is prone to bleeding. One should not provide this treatment as this can trigger for bleeding episodes.
  • Active internal bleeding. Patients suffering from internal bleeding due to an accident or trauma should abstain from taking thrombolytic agents.
  • Those known to be suffering from a cardiovascular accident, specifically the hemorrhagic type are contraindicated of thrombolytic agents.
  • Pregnant women are also contraindicated to such agents.
  • Those who have a prolonged and uncontrolled history of hypertension are known contraindicated of these agents.
  • Patients who have had an allergic reaction with this type of drug are an absolute contraindication for them.

Relative

  • If there is an increase in blood pressure for two consecutive readings would indicate for a relative contraindication.
  • People suffering from bacterial endocarditis are contraindicated of such agents.
  • Those suffering from a severe renal disorder are contraindicated of the thrombolytic agents.
  • Those who are in warfarin therapy are contraindicated since this shall only hasten the action of the drugs and only lead to profuse bleeding or even internal bleeding. Basically, those who are undergoing an anticoagulant therapy are contraindicated of thrombolytics.
  • Those with an active peptic ulcer disease.

Thrombolysis Uses

There are a number of uses of the thrombolytic agents in a specific manner. The following are the said uses of the drugs:

Streptokinase

The said agent will remain in the patient’s body and provide a chronic or lasting treatment for three to six months.

  • ST elevation in myocardial infarction. This is found or identified in ECG results. Those who had an ST elevation are required to take such medication.
  • Those suffering from arterial thrombosis and deep vein thrombosis. These are common conditions of the elderly and those who are prone to blood clot formation.
  • Patients with acute pulmonary embolism are treated with streptokinase.

Tenecteplase

This is modified form of tPA or tissue plasminogen activator that shall convert plasminogen to plasmin.

  • Those suffering from an acute MI or myocardial infarction are provided with such medication.

Urokinase

This type of thrombolytic agent has a number of uses.

  • This is provided to clients who have had myocardial infarction.
  • Occlusion of a catheter can be treated with this drug.
  • Deep vein thrombosis is also relieved by this drug.
  • During dialysis this drug is used to avoid or be a form of prophylaxis for thrombus formations.

Side Effects

There are a number of effects that this type of drug or mechanism provides. All of the classification of thrombolytic agents can result to the following:

  1. A bleeding episode.
  2. Cardiac problems or arrhythmias.
  3. The thrombus may become an embolus, a free-moving blood clot.
  4. Cerebrovascular accident is a risk.
  5. Intracranial hemorrhage.

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