- 1 List of autoimmune diseases
- 1.1 Alopecia areata
- 1.2 Anklosing or Ankylosing Spondilitis
- 1.3 Antiphospholipid syndrome
- 1.4 Addison’s disease
- 1.5 Hemolytic anemia (autoimmune)
- 1.6 Hepatitis (autoimmune)
- 1.7 Inner ear disease (autoimmune)
- 1.8 Autoimmune lymph proliferative diseases
- 1.9 Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
- 1.10 Behcet’ disease
- 1.11 Bullous pemphigoid
- 1.12 Cardiomyopathy
- 1.13 Celiac Sprue disease
- 1.14 Chronic fatigue syndrome
- 1.15 Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
- 1.16 Circatricial pemphigoid
- 1.17 Cold agglutinin disease
- 1.18 Crohn’s disease
- 1.19 CREST syndrome
- 1.20 Dermatomysitosis
- 1.21 Degos disease
- 1.22 Discoid lupus erythematus
- 1.23 Essential mixed cryoglobulinemia
- 1.24 Graves disease
- 1.25 Guillain-Barre syndrome
- 1.26 Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
- 1.27 Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- 1.28 IgA nephropathy
- 1.29 Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
- 1.30 Lupus
- 1.31 Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
- 1.32 Meniere’s disease
- 1.33 Mixed connective tissue disease
- 1.34 Multiple sclerosis
- 1.35 Myasthenia Gravis
- 1.36 Pemphigus vulgaris
- 1.37 Pernicious anemia
- 1.38 Polyarteritis nodosa
- 1.39 Relapsing polychrondritis
- 1.40 Polyglandular syndromes
- 1.41 Polymyalgia rheumatic
- 1.42 Polymyositis
- 1.43 Primary agammaglobulinemia
- 1.44 Primary biliary cirrhosis
- 1.45 Psoriasis
- 1.46 Reynaud’s phenomenon
- 1.47 Rheumatic fever
- 1.48 Reiter’s syndrome
- 1.49 Rheumatoid arthritis
- 1.50 Sarcoidosis
- 1.51 Scleroderma
- 1.52 Sjogren’s syndrome
- 1.53 Stiff-man syndrome
- 1.54 Takayasu’s syndrome
- 1.55 Giant cell arteritis
- 1.56 Ulcerative colitis
- 1.57 Uveitis
- 1.58 Vitiligo
- 1.59 Vasculitis
- 1.60 Wegener’s granulomatosis
List of autoimmune diseases
This is condition wherein human hair is lost in some areas of the head. This is also called as bald spots.
Anklosing or Ankylosing Spondilitis
This comes from the Greek words spondylos meaning vertebra and ankylosis which means stiff. The condition is previously called as the Bekhterev’s disease or Bekhterev’s syndrome or Marie-Strumpell disease. The Anklosing spondilitis is an inflammatory disease where the joints are mainly affected as well as the nonarticular structures. The affected areas are usually at the sacroiliac joints as well as spinal joints.
This condition is also called as antiphospholipic antibody syndrome (APLS or APS) or Hughes Syndrome. In this autoimmune condition the antibodies in the body will react against the phospholipid cell membrane where it creates thrombosis or blood clots in both veins and arteries. The thrombus formation happens because of the production of antibodies against the phospholipid. Because of this, pregnancy related complications like stillbirth, preterm, severe preeclampsia and miscarriage occur.
This is one of the common autoimmune diseases where the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones such as the mineral corticosteroids and the glucocorticosteroids. The adrenal gland is in the “primary adrenal insufficiency” state and if left untreated can lead to Addisonian crisis where it is fatal.
Hemolytic anemia (autoimmune)
In hemolytic anemia, the red blood cells or the RCS bursts or lyse because the antibodies attacks the RBCs. This will lead to decrease concentration in the plasma.
Autoimmune hepatitis is a condition where the immune system of the body attacks the liver. This can be attributed to a genetic problem where the human leukocyte antigen class II surfaces on the hepatocytes. The inflammation on the liver will then result to more complications and problems like liver cirrhosis.
Inner ear disease (autoimmune)
There is a bilateral loss of hearing on both ears because the immune system attacks the inner ear thinking that the inner ear is a bacteria or a virus.
Autoimmune lymph proliferative diseases
This is a rare kind of lymphoproliferatie disorder where the lymphocytes survived because of the Fas mediated apoptosis that is defective. In a normal condition, after an infection, the body’s immune system is down-regulated by the B and T lymphocyte. The Fas and the fas-ligand interact and then trigger the caspase cascade. In the autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease, there is a problem in the apoptotic pathway which leads to the autoimmune disease and even cancer.
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
This is an autoimmune disease where there is an abnormal low platelet count but the cause is unknown or idiopathic. The antibodies then react on the platelets causing the body to bleed easily and purpura or red spots in the body.
The Behcet’s disease is also called as Behcet’s syndrome or Silk Road disease or Morbus Behcet. This is a rare disease caused by the immune system where it involves vasulitis. The vasulitis happens in the mucous membrane usually in the mouth, genitals and uveitis where ulcerations happen. This affects the other body-systems like the muscular, gastrointestinal and pulmonary systems.
This is also called as BP where it occurs either acutely or chronically. This is an autoimmune disease that affects the skin where there are blister formations or bullae. The blisters happen not on the skin surface but in between the dermis and the epidermis layer. The blisters are commonly seen in the inner thighs and on the upper arms.
Cardiomypathy is also considered as an autoimmune disease where the muscles of the heart are affected. In this condition, the ability of the heart to pump more blood is compromised and can lead to heart failure. Cardiomyopathy occurs in 4 different types like the dilatative, restrictive and hypertrophic.
Celiac Sprue disease
The Celic Sprue disease is also called as the Celia Sprue dermatitis. It particularly affects the digestive system where the body is not able to absorb nutrients from the food eaten. Celiac Sprue disease is associated with the gluten allergic reaction in foods like oats, wheat, rye and barley.
Chronic fatigue syndrome
This autoimmune problem is also called as the myalgic encephalomyelitis, post-viral fatigue syndrome or the chronic fatigue immune dysfunction. In this problem the symptoms persistently show however the etiology of the CFS is not understood why the problem happened. The patient with this condition shows symptoms or widespread joint and muscle pain, headache, cognitive problems, mental, physical exhaustion, unrefreshing sleep and others.
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
This is an autoimmune system that affects the peripheral nervous system where it attacks the myelin sheath or the fatty coverings of the nerve fibers. Because of this, the person with CIPD responses weakly or shows no response at all in stimuli which cause muscle pain, tingling, muscle weakness, and loss of deep tendon reflex.
This autoimmune disease is also called as the benign mucosal pemphigoid, scarring pemphigoid, ocular pemphigus. It is a chronic condition where there are subepithelial blisters on the skin. This results to scarring on the affected areas.
Cold agglutinin disease
The cold agglutinin disease is a condition where there are high levels or concentration of IgM which is the circulating antibodies and it attacks the red blood cells. The effect will then result to low body temperatures.
Crohn’s disease is also called as the regional enteritis. The immune system targets the gastrointestinal track where it attacks the microbial antigens. This can affect any organ in the digestive tract from mouth to the anus. It may also involve other complications like skin rashes, eye inflammation, arthritis and others.
CREST syndrome means calcinosis, raynaud’s syndrome, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly and talangiectasia. In this condition, there is a production of the anti-centromere antibodies and anti-nuclear antibodies. There is a collection of different symptoms of the connective tissue disease like weakness, exhaustion, difficulty breathing, and badly healing wounds.
The dermatomyositis is a kind of connective tissue disease where there is inflammation of the skin and muscles. There is an autoimmune reaction and later on affects other system like the esophagus, the joints and lungs.
Degos disease is also referred as the malignant atrophic papulosis. In this condition, there is a vaculopathy in the small and medium-sized veins as well as the arteries. The vasculopathy results to blockage of the blood vessel and eventually tissue infarction or tissue death. It mostly affects the skin specifically at the back, the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract causing ischemic colitis and mesenteric ischemia.
Discoid lupus erythematus
This is a kind of lupus disease where it affects, inflames and scars the face, the scalp and the ears. These lesions are inflamed red and then later on appear as crusty and scaling in appearance.
Essential mixed cryoglobulinemia
This is a condition where in there is too much cryoglobulins which is a protein that are insoluble in low or temperatures. This is a rare condition where it only affects 1:100,000 persons. The cryoglobulins normally precipitate if the temperature is below normal and then dissolves if the temperature increases.
This is also called as hyperthyroidism or the thyrotoxicosis where there is an overactive thyroid production. The thyroid autoantibodies are believed to be the cause the problems. These antibodies activate the thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH-receptor thus overproduction and secretion of the thyroid hormone. This will result to thyroid growth or enlarged goiter.
This problem affects the peripheral nervous system where an ascending paralysis happens. In the beginning there is a weakness in the feet and hands and the paralysis goes up to the trunk. This disease is also called as the Landry’s paralysis or Guillain-Barre-Strohl syndrome.
This is also called as the chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. In this condition, the thyroid gland is attacked by different cells and antibody-mediated immune response. The condition is the same as in hyperthyroidism but in this illness, there is also myxedematous psychosis, depression, weight gain and even sensitivity to heat and cold and other problems
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
The IPF is also called as the cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis or the idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. The IPF is a chronic and a progressive lung disease where the interstitium of the lungs become fibrous or forms fibrosis.
This is an autoimmune disease where the IgA which s a protein the helps in fighting against infection goes to settles to the kidneys. Because of this, the kidney function is compromised whereby the urine has RBCs and urine during a urine analysis. This problem will then lead to kidney failure in the long run.
Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
This is also called as type 1 diabetes mellitus or IDDM and is previously called as the juvenile diabetes. In this kind of diabetes, there is destruction of the beta cell which produces insulin in the pancreas. The glucose is not delivered into the cells and will stay in the blood which will cause problem systemically. The patient experiences the 3 Ps or the polydipsia or frequent thirst, polyphagia or frequent eating and polyuria or frequent urination. The patient will then be on a lifelong insulin injection.
This is a collective term for an autoimmune disease where the immune system is hyperactive and in turn attacks the healthy tissues of the body. It affects different organs like the heart, blood cells, lungs, skin, kidneys and joins.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
This is also called as the juvenile rheumatoid arthritis or JRA. This condition mostly affects children where this is triggered mostly by psychological stress. The signs and symptoms can be the same arthritis such are lethargy, restraint physical activity as well as poor appetite. The child’s first manifestation is that they seem to be limping and the pain is experienced at the latter part of the day.
This autoimmune problem affects the inner ear where the sense of balance and hearing are both compromised. The patient experiences low-pitched tinnitus, vertigo and eventually loss of hearing. The hearing loss problem fluctuates meaning it comes and goes.
Mixed connective tissue disease
MCTD is also called as the Sharp’s syndrome. This is a combination of different e disease features like myositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and others. The symptoms include: body malaise, Raynaud’ phenomenon, inflammation of the muscles, sclerodactyly or the thinkening of the finger pads, and joint pains and swelling
MS is also referred as encephalomyelitis disseminate or dessiminated sclerosis. In this condition, the fattymyelin which are the sheaths that surrounds the axon in the brain and spinal cord are damaged or injured. This will lead to scaring or demyelination which affects the communication of the brain and the spinal cord. When the myelin is destroyed, the transmission of signals in the peripheral and central nervous systems are compromised.
This is a kind of autoimmune disease where the muscle weakness and the body’s fatiguability fluctuate. The antibodies attack and block the acetylcholine receptor which is found at the post synaptic neuromuscular junction. This will cause problems like diminished excitatory effects in the neuromuscular junctions. The patient will then experience progressive weakness in certain activities and then the condition improves after resting. It affects eye movements, swallowing, talking, chewing as well as the facial expressions.
Pemphigus vulgaris is a chronic autoimmune disease where it involves painful skin lesions. The antibodies attack the desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3 which will result to the cohesive loss of the keratinocytes in the epidermis. milder skin lesions is believed to be the cause of attacking the desmoglein 1 while severe kinds or the lesions in the mucosa are believed to be caused by the desmoglein 3.
The pernicious anemia is one of the many types of megaloblastic anemia. This is also called as the Addison’s anemia, Biermer’s anemia or the Addison-Biermer anemia. In this autoimmune disease, there is partial loss of the parietal cells in the gastric area. These parietal cells are responsible for the intrinsic factor secretion which will help in the absorption of vitamin B12. This absorption happens in the ileum. The patient with pernicious anemia also has vitamin B12 deficiency.
This is a kind of autoimmune disease where vasculitis occurs in the small and medium-sized arteries. The arteries are swollen because of the rogue immune cells that attack it. The polyarteritis nodosa is also called as the Kussmaul disease and it may involve or inflame the arteries in the heart causing complications like heart attack.
This autoimmune condition affects the cartilage where it deteriorates. The affected areas are usually attacks are the nose, the heart valves, throat, nose, as well as the rib cage. This is also called as atrophic polychrondritis or systemic chondromalacia.
The polyglandular syndroms has different types but it is a collective immune disease where endocrine glands become underactive or does not produce the normal level of the hormones they secrete. There are 3 types of polyglandular deficiencies.
This is a kind of autoimmune disease where it affects the neck, hips and shoulder. Polymygalgia is a Greek term when translated n English meand pain in many muscles. In this condition, the pain suddenly occurs or the pain gradually occurs in time.
This is a chronic condition where it inflames the muscles. most of the symptoms include thickening of the palm of the hands or sclerodactyly, dysphagia as well as esophageal dysmotility.
This is also called as the X-link hypogammaglobulineamia in which there are lesser antibodies in the body due to the failure of B cells maturation. The B cells are responsible for the formation of the antibodies in the body or these are also called as the immunoglobulinsand it defends the body serious and different kinds of infection.
Primary biliary cirrhosis
The PBC is an autoimmune disease that affects the liver. In this disease, there is a slow, progressive destruction of the bile canaliculi or the small bile ducts. Over time, this will lead to tissue damage which will scare the hepatocytes and turn to be fibrous.
Psoriasis is a well known condition where the body’s immune system basically “thinks” that the skin cells are pathogens. This results to a faulty signal where there is an increase growth of skin cells. The skin appears scaly and people mistake this to be contagious which is not. There are 5 types of psoriasis which include guttate, plaque, pustular, erythrodermic and inverse.
Reynaud’s phenomenon affects the fingers and toes where it becomes brittle, cyanotic and sometimes lead to necrosis. The discoloration of the fingers and toes happen as a response to stress or cold weather. This means that there is a hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system where it causes severe vasoconstriction and leads to hypocxia or decreased oxygen supply on the affected areas.
The rheumatic fever happens because of a streptococcal pyogenes infection and leads to a cross-activity of the antibodies to the skin, join and heart. This problem can result to glumerulonephritis and rheumatic heart disease if left untreated.
This condition is also called as reactive arthritis where the body’s immune system “attacks” the normal cells in response to the infection on a certain body part. The signs and symptoms presented by this condition is the same as arthritis.
This is a systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease where it attacks different organs in the body but it usually attacks the synovial joints. There is a destruction of the cartilage and then a fusion of the joints in rheumatoid arthritis. This happens because there is an excess production of the synovial fluid which will swell the synovium and there is a development of the fibrous tissue.
This is a kind of autoimmune disease where the inflammatory cells form nodules in different organs of the body. The nodule formations are mostly non-necrotizing or it does not cause tissue death and most of the granulomas are found in the lungs. This mostly happens in the lungs. Sarcoidosis is also called as the Besnier-Boeck disease.
A chronic autoimmune disease where there is a fibrous formation as well as vascular alterations. This systemic disease is mostly seen in the skin and it has 2 different forms. These are the diffuse systemic sclerosis where this form is rather disabling and affects the kidneys, esophagus, lungs and heart aside from the skin. The other one is the limited systemic sclerosis where it involves the hands, face and arms.
This autoimmune disease attacks the exocrine glands which is responsible for the production of saliva and tears. This is also called as the Mikulics disease.
This is a rare condition where there is rapid stiffness and rigidity of the muscles and results to postural deformities. This is also called as the stiff person’s syndrome or the Moersch-Woltman condition.
This is also referred as the aortic arch syndrome where this autoimmune disease mainly affects the aorta. There is an intimal fibrosis in the aorta thus narrowing the blood vessel and causes decreased delivery of blood supply to other parts of the body. This condition mainly affects Asian women in their middle-age years.
Giant cell arteritis
This is a condition wherein the affects the arteries in the head usually in the temporal area. this condition will cause headache, blurring of vision, tongue claudication, fever, bruits, tinnitus and other symptoms
This is another form of inflammatory bowel disease where it affects the large intestines or the colon. There is a sore or ulceration of the specific organ and results to diarrhea. This can be related to Crohn’s disease however in ulcerative colitis, it only affects the colon.
This condition means that there is inflammation of the uvea which is the middle layer of the eye. Uveitis when left untreated can account to blindness.
Vitiligo is a condition where there is depigmentation of the skin because the melanocytes are not able to function. The melanocytes are responsible for the skin pigmentation and gives equal skin color to all parts of the body.
Vasclitis is a group of diseases or disorders where there is destruction of the blood vessels in both arteries and veins or either of the 2 blood vessels.
This is another form of vasculitis where it affects the kidney, lungs and nose. This entails patients to be in a life-long immunosuppression which can be fatal to the patients.